Boundary-Spanning Groups 

In organizations with distinct divisions, boundary-spanning groups can serve to establish links among them. These groups can also be used to build relationships with groups outside the organization. (Source: Levina & Vaast, 2004)

Champions and Change Agents

Champions or change agents are defined as individuals who influence others or work in a direction deemed desirable by the agent, in this context, knowledge management .(Source: Jones et al, 2003)

Communities of Practice

Communities of Practice (CoP) describe a group of people who share an interest, craft, and/or profession. The group can evolve naturally because of the members’ common interest or it can be created specifically with the goal of gaining knowledge related to their field. It is through the process of sharing information and experiences with the group that the members learn from each other and have an opportunity to develop themselves both personally and professionally. These groups commonly renounce the adoption of hierarchical structures, opting instead for a very flexible working arrangement. (Source: Lave & Wenger, 1991)

Comparative Advantage

Originating from the school of economics, a comparative advantage is created when a company or individual is able to produce something at a lower cost than anyone else. (Source: Library of Economics and Literature, n.d.)

Explicit Knowledge

This is concrete knowledge – that is, knowledge that can be easily codified, organized and stored. For example, an evaluation on the Federal government’s employment programs stored on an intranet site is an explicit knowledge asset. A policy or procedure manual is also an explicit knowledge asset.

Expertise Locator

This is a tool that enables people to identify knowledge experts located across the organization. It categorizes knowledge experts according to their area of expertise, interests and a little personal information and sometimes acts as a skills database repository. It is sometimes referred to as the “corporate yellow pages.” The purpose is to connect people to each other. (Source: BC Forest Service, 2005/06)

Human Capital Management

Human Capital Management, also referred to as Talent Management, is the ongoing process that organisations use to recruit appropriately skilled and motivated employees, integrate them into their organisations, develop their competences and retain their commitment. (Source: StepStone, 2010)

Intellectual Capital

Intellectual capital is knowledge that can be leveraged to produce value. It can include the skills and knowledge an organization uses to refine its business cycle or the knowledge and skills employees apply to enhance organizational operations. Irrespective of the source, intellectual capital is critical to a company’s continued success.

Organizational Learning

Organizational Learning is school of thought that examines the various models and theories used to explain the methods by which an organization adapts and learns. (Source: Argyris & Schon, 1978)

Push-Pull Capability

This capability allows organizations to both absorb knowledge from others as well as communicate knowledge out.


Organizational silos are created when units act and think independent of one another. In turn, information sharing is often thwarted, work is commonly duplicated and individual goals are typically advanced over broader, organizational ones. (Source: WikiAnswers, n.d.)

Strategic Asset

A strategic asset is a value-added resource that can be used to inform decision-making. In this context, it is the combination of explicit and tacit knowledge, skills and experience which exist within staff. Strategic assets are often the critical determinants that enable an organization to maintain a sustainable advantage over its competitors. (Source: Othman, n.d.)

Strategic Management of Knowledge

For the purpose of this guide, we have defined the strategic management of knowledge as a systematic approach to maximizing the generation, sharing, and use of knowledge to support organizational learning, resilience and, ultimately, performance.

Such work includes strategies, tools and processes that can be employed to ensure that people are connected, that learning occurs at a team and organizational level, and that appropriate supports – including access to expertise and technology – are in place to enhance decision-making, achieve operational efficiency and effectiveness, and promote innovation.

Strategic Risk Assessment

A strategic risk assessment is one step in the risk management process. The assessment involves assessing and quantifying business risks, then instituting measures to control or reduce them. (Source: Kolakowsi, n.d.)

Tacit Knowledge and 'Know-How' 

Tacit knowledge is more difficult to codify, organize and store than explicit knowledge. Related to tacit knowledge is the concept of “know-how,” this refers to knowledge of the processes and tools required to accomplish something well. Know-how – that is, tacit knowledge – can mean having (Collison and Parcell 2004, pp. 34–35):

  • know-who about networks and relationships in and out of government
  • know-what about content and specialist knowledge
  • know-why about big-picture context, strategy and systems thinking
  • know-where about researching and sleuthing skills
  • know-when about timing of when to take action and when not to, such as deciding to set a project aside  
Web 2.0

Coined in 1999, Web 2.0 is commonly associated with web applications that facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability and collaboration among web users. This contrasts with non-interactive sites that limit one’s use to passive viewing of information as provided by the host. (Source: Deloitte & Touche, 2008)


A wiki is a website that allows users to add and update content on the site using their own web server. Wikis are created mainly through the collaborative effort of site visitors. The term "wiki" comes from the Hawaiian phrase, "wiki wiki," which means "super fast." This is appropriate because with so many users content is added and shared “super fast”. (Source: TechTerms Computer Dictionary)